Four Hills Tournament 2020-2021 - Schedule & Results

Four Hills Tournament 2020-2021

Ski Jumping Four Hills Tournament is tradiotinally held in four locations in Germany and Austria during December and January. See the competition schedule, timetables, results, statistics and much more!
The 69th Ski Jumping Four Hills Tournament (Vierschanzentournee) is organized in 2020-2021 in Germany and Austria as always.
The 69th Ski Jumping Four Hills Tournament (Vierschanzentournee) is organized in 2020-2021 in Germany and Austria as always.

Ski Jumping Four Hills Tournament is perhaps the best known ski jumping series of all time. The four events are organized in Oberstdorf (GER), Garmisch-Partenkirchen (GER), Innsbruck (AUT) and Bischofshofen (AUT) during the change of the year every year.

On our page you will find the schedule, results, standings and a lot of historic details of the Four Hills Tournament.

Ski Jumping Four Hills Tournament 2020-2021 – Overall standings

Updated 6.11.2021 time 19:52

Final standings 4/4 events

1.Kamil Stoch (POL)1110,6
2.Karl Geiger (GER)1062,5
3.Dawid Kubacki (POL)1057,8
4.Halvor Egner Granerud (NOR)1057,4
5.Piotr Zyla (POL)1037,2
6.Ryoyu Kobayashi (JPN)1032,5
6.Andrzej Stekala (POL)1032,5
8.Stefan Kraft (AUT)1019,1
9.Peter Prevc (SLO)1018,0
10.Daniel Huber (AUT)1014,7

The final standings of previous tournaments you can find from our history-section.

Ski Jumping Four Hills Tournament 2020-2021 – Results

Bischofshofen 5.1.2021

Men´s qualification

1.Kamil Stoch (POL)142.9
2.Robert Johansson (NOR)-0.6
3.Halvor Egner Granerud (NOR)-0.7
4.Stefan Kraft (AUT)-2.2
5.Daniel Huber (AUT)-2.8
6.Dawid Kubacki (POL)-7.4
7.Michael Hayböck (AUT)-7.5
8.Markus Eisenbichler (GER)-10.5
9.Yukiya Sato (JPN)-14.9
10.Philipp Aschenwald (AUT)-18.6

Innsbruck 3.1.2021

Innsbruck 4hills

1.Kamil Stoch (POL)261,6
2.Anze Lanisek (SLO)-12,0
3.Dawid Kubacki (POL)-13,3
4.Piotr Zyla (POL)-15,4
5.Yukiya Sato (JPN)-16,0
6.Markus Eisenbichler (GER)-16,6
7.Ryoyu Kobayashi (JPN)-17,3
8.Stefan Kraft (AUT)-18,1
9.Michael Hayböck (AUT)-19,1
10.Gregor Deschwanden (SUI)-21,0

Innsbruck 2.1.2021

Innsbruck qualification

1.Halvor Egner Granerud (NOR)132,2
2.Daniel Huber (AUT)128,9
3.Dawid Kubacki (POL)128,7
4.Markus Eisenbichler (GER)125,7
5.Kamil Stoch (POL)125,4
6.Stefan Kraft (AUT)125,2
7.Karl Geiger (GER)123,6
8.Piotr Zyla (POL)123,2
9.Peter Prevc (SLO)121,8
10.Philipp Aschenwald (AUT)119,5

Garmisch Partenkirchen 1.1.2021


1.Dawid Kubacki (POL)282,1
2.Halvor Egner Granerud (NOR)274,9
3.Piotr Zyla (POL)260,4
4.Kamil Stoch (POL)260,0
5.Karl Geiger (GER)259,9
6.Philipp Aschenwald (AUT)257,7
7.Ryoyu Kobayashi (JPN)257,2
7.Markus Eisenbichler (GER)257,2
9.Johann Andre Forfang (NOR)256,2
10.Adnrzej Stekala (POL)253,7

Four Hills Tournament, Oberstdorf 29.12.2020

Men HS137

1.Karl Geiger (GER)291,1
2.Kamil Stoch (POL)288,3
3.Marius Lindvik (NOR)285,2
4.Halvor Egner Granerud (NOR)280,1
5.Markus Eisenbichler (GER)274,3
6.Stefan Kraft (AUT)273,6
7.Adnrzej Stekala (POL)273,3
8.Philipp Aschenwald (AUT)273,0
9.Anze Lanisek (SLO)270,1
10.Ziga Jelar (SLO)269,8

Four Hills Oberstdorf, qualification 28.12.2020

Men HS137

1.Philipp Aschenwald (AUT)134,9
2.Halvor Egner Granerud (NOR)123,8
3.Cene Prevc (SLO)123,5
4.Daniel Huber (AUT)123,3
5.Ryoyu Kobayashi (JPN)122,5
6.Antti Aalto (FIN)121,2
7.Robert Johansson (NOR)118,3
8.Anze Lanisek (SLO)118,2
9.Giovanni Bresadola (ITA)117,0
10.Gregor Deschwanden (SUI)115,7

You can find the results and final standings of previous tournaments in our history-section.

Ski Jumping Four Hills Tournament 2020-2021 – Schedule

The Four Hills Tournament begins with a qualification competition on Monday the 28th of December 2020 in Oberstdorf, Germany. The official Oberstdorf competition is held the day after the qualification on the 29th.

The Tournament continues in Garmisch-Partenkirchen on New Year´s Eve when the next qualification competition is held. The official competition in Garmisch is held on the New Year´s Day.

After Garmisch the Tournament moves across the border to Austria where the final two competitions take place. On the 3rd of January the jumpers compete in Innsbruck (qualification on the 2nd of January) and final competition is held in Bischofshofen on the 6th of January (qualification on the 5th).

Read: Bischofshofen 4Hills Tournament Preview

NOTE: All the times are local German/Austrian times (CET).


28.12.2020 16:30Oberstdorf HS137Qualification
29.12.2020 16:30Oberstdorf HS137Competition
31.12.2020 14:00Garmisch-Partenkirchen HS142Qualification
1.1.2021 14:00Garmisch-Partenkirchen HS142Competition
2.1.2021 13:30Innsbruck HS128Qualification
3.1.2021 13:30Innsbruck HS128Competition
5.1.2021 16:30Bischofshofen HS142Qualification
6.1.2021 16:45Bischofshofen HS142Competition

Teams for the Four Hills Tournament 2020-2021

Team Germany

Germany will be able to appoint 12 jumpers for their two home events (Oberstdorf and Garmish-Partenkirchen). Karl Geiger will be added to the team when his covid-19 quarantine is finished and if his health check shows a green light.


Moritz BaerMarkus Eisenbichler
Richard FreitagSeverin Freund
Martin HamannKilian Märkl
Pius PaschkeLuca Roth
David SiegelConstantin Schmid
Andreas Wellinger 

Germany´s Markus Eisenbichler wants to improve his second place from season 2018-2019 Four Hills Tournament.
Photo: Vierschanzentournee
Germany´s Markus Eisenbichler wants to improve his second place from season 2018-2019 Four Hills Tournament.

Team Austria

Austria starts the tour with seven jumpers. Austria will be able to appoint 12 jumpers to their home events (Innsbruck and Bischofshofen).


Stefan KraftPhilipp Aschenwald
Michael HayboeckDaniel Huber
Jan HoerlThomas Lackner
Markus Schiffner 

Team Norway


Sander Vossan EriksenJohann Forfang
Halvor Egner GranerudRobert Johansson
Marius LindvikDaniel Tande

Team Poland


Kamil StochDawid Kubacki
Piotr ŻyłaAndrzej Stękała
Klemens MurańkaAleksander Zniszczoł
Maciej Kot 

Murańka tested positive for covid-19 right before the Oberstdorf event and because of that the whole Polish team will be sidelined from Oberstdorf.

Team Japan


Ryoyu KobayashiJunshiro Kobayashi
Keiichi SatoYukiya Sato
Naoki Nakamura 

Japan´s Ryoyu Kobayashi won the Four Hills Tournament in 2018-2019.
Photo: Vierschanzentournee
Japan´s Ryoyu Kobayashi won the Four Hills Tournament in 2018-2019.

Team Slovenia


Anže LanišekPeter Prevc
Bor PavlovčičŽiga Jelar
Cene PrevcDomen Prevc

Team Finland


Antti AaltoNiko Kytösaho

The Four Hills Tournament is known for huge amount of spectators and carnival atmosphere. This time the tournament is organized without public due to the covid-19 pandemic.
Photo: Vierschanzentournee
The Four Hills Tournament is known for huge amount of spectators and carnival atmosphere. This time the tournament is organized without public due to the covid-19 pandemic.

The Four Hills Tournament – Results & standigs from previous years

Ski Jumping Four Hills Tournament 2019-2020

Final standings

1.Dawid Kubacki (POL)1131.6
2.Marius Lindvik (NOR)-20.6
3.Karl Geiger (GER)-23.2
4.Ryoyu Kobayashi (JPN)-35.6
5.Stefan Kraft (AUT)-45.6
6.Johann Andre Forfang (NOR)-80.6
7.Domen Prevc (SLO)-80.7
8.Peter Prevc (SLO)-82.8
9.Daiki Ito (JPN)-92.6
10.Stephan Leyhe (GER)-94.1


Bischofshofen 5.1.2020


1.Dawid Kubacki (POL)300.9
2.Karl Geiger (GER)291.0
3.Marius Lindvik (NOR)289.4
4.Stefan Krat (AUT)287.4
5.Peter Prevc (SLO)283.6
6.Daniel Andre Tande (NOR)279.3
7.Ryoyu Kobayashi (JPN)279.0
8.Daiki Ito (JPN)276.4
9.Domen Prevc (SLO)275.5
10.Philipp Aschenwald (AUT)274.6

Innsbruck 4.1.2020


1.Marius Lindvik (NOR)253,3
2.Dawid Kubacki (POL)252,0
3.Daniel Andre Tande (NOR)249,3
4.Stefan Kraft (AUT)245,0
5.Stephan Leyhe (GER)241,6
6.Gregor Schlierenzauer (AUT)240,0
7.Johann Andre Forfang (NOR)238,4
8.Karl Geiger (GER)236,5
9.Peter Prevc (SLO)236,3
10.Domen Prevc (SLO)234,6

Innsbruck, qulification 3.1.2020


1.Marius Lindvik (NOR)138,9 Q
2.Stefan Kraft (AUT)136,8 Q
3.Karl Geiger (GER)134,9 Q
3.Philipp Aschenwald (AUT)134,9 Q
5.Ryoyu Kobayashi (JPN)134,0 Q
5.Dawid Kubacki (POL)134,0 Q
7.Timi Zajc (SLO)129,5 Q
7.Junshiro Kobayashi (JPN)129,5 Q
9.Piotr Zyla (POL)129,3 Q
10.Stephan Leyhe (GER)128,2 Q

Garmisch-Partenkirchen 1.1.2020


1.Marius Lindvik (NOR)289,8
2.Karl Geiger (GER)285,0
3.Dawid Kubacki (POL)284,0
4.Ryoyu Kobayashi (JPN)282,1
5.Daiki Ito (JPN)273,4
6.Daniel Huber (AUT)272,1
7.Constantin Schmid (GER)271,5
8.Roman Koudelka (CZE)267,3
9.Johann Andre Forfang (NOR)266,2
10.Markus Eisenbichler (GER)266,1

Garmisch-Partenkirchen 31.12.2019 qualification


1.Karl Geiger (GER)142,7
2.Philipp Aschenwald (AUT)142,6
3.Ryoyu Kobayashi (JPN)140,9
3.Peter Prevc (SLO)140,9
5.Markus Eisenbichler (GER)140,0
6.Yukiya Sato (JPN)137,7
7.Stefan Kraft (AUT)137,4
7.Daiki Ito (JPN)137,4
9.Johann Andre Forfang (NOR)137,0
10.Dawid Kubacki (POL)136,6

Oberstdorf 29.12.2019


1.Ryoyu Kobayashi (JPN)305,1
2.Karl Geiger (GER)295,9
3.Dawid Kubacki (POL)294,7
4.Stefan Kraft (AUT)291,2
5.Piotr Zyla (POL)281,5
6.Philipp Aschenwald (AUT)280,3
7.Yukiya Sato (JPN)280,1
8.Robert Johansson (NOR)279,8
9.Domen Prevc (SLO)279,5
10.Marius Lindvik (NOR)278,5

Oberstdorf qualification 28.12.2019


1.Stefan Kraft (AUT)152,2
2.Junshiro Kobayashi (JPN)-2,6
3.Stephan Leyhe (GER)-4,3
4.Ryoyu Kobayashi (JPN)-4,6
5.Markus Eisenbichler (GER)-5,7
6.Karl Geiger (GER)-7,2
7.Marius Lindvik (NOR)-7,9
8.Domen Prevc (SLO)-8,2
9.Piotr Zyla (POL)-8,7
10.Philipp Aschenwald (AUT)-10,8

Ski Jumping Four Hills Tournament 2018-2019

Final Standings

1.Ryoyu Kobayashi (JPN)1098.0
2.Markus Eisenbichler (GER)-62.1
3.Stephan Leyhe (GER)-83.9
4.Dawid Kubacki (POL)-87.2
5.Roman Koudelka (CZE)-91.7
6.Kamil Stoch (POL)-104.0
7.Andreas Stjernen (NOR)-110.0
8.Robert Johansson (NOR)-114.8
9.Daniel Huber (AUT)-127.6
10.Killian Peier (SUI)-138.7


Bischofshofen 6.1.2019 (4/4)

1.Ryoyu Kobayashi (JPN)282.0
2.Dawid Kubacki (POL)268.3
3.Stefan Kraft (AUT)267.5
4.Stephan Leyhe (GER)266.0
5.Markus Eisenbichler (GER)265.5
6.Roman Koudelka (CZE)259.7
7.Halvor Egner Granerud (NOR)258.0
8.Killian Peier (SUI)254.6
9.Robert Johansson (NOR)253.3
10.Karl Geiger (GER)249.5

Innsbruck 4.1.2019

1.Ryoyu Kobayashi (JPN)267.0
2.Stefan Kraft (AUT)254.2
3.Andreas Stjernen (NOR)242.7
4.Stephan Leyhe (GER)239.1
5.Kamil Stoch (POL)234.1
6.Yukiya Sato (JPN)231.4
7.Killian Peier (SUI)230.6
8.Richard Freitag (GER)230.0
9.Roman Koudelka (CZE)228.4
10.Timi Zajc (SLO)226.6

Garmisch-Partenkirchen 1.1.2019

1.Ryoyu Kobayashi (JPN)266.6
2.Markus Eisenbichler (GER)264.7
3.David Kubacki (POL)256.2
4.Roman Koudelka (CZE)253.8
5.Junshiro Kobayashi (JPN)249.4
6.Kamil Stoch (POL)249.2
7.Stephan Leyhe (GER)249.0
8.Timi Zajc (SLO)248.7
9.Halvor Egner Granerud (NOR)245.4
10.Andreas Stjernen (NOR)245.3

Oberstdorf 29.12.2018

1.Ryoyu Kobayashi (JPN)282.3
2.Markus Eisenbichler (GER)281.9
3.Stefan Kraft (AUT)280.5
4.Andreas Stjernen (NOR)278.2
5.David Kubacki (POL)268.9
6.Piotr Zyla (POL)268.3
7.Robert Johansson (NOR)268.0
8.Kamil Stoch (POL)267.6
9.Timi Zajc (SLO)266.0
10.Daniel Huber (AUT)265.2

Ski Jumping Four Hills Tournament – Statistics

The first ski jumping Four Hills Tournament (ger. Vierschanzentournee) was organized in 1952-1953 and after that teh tournament has been active yearly to this day. The Four Hills Tournament has also been a part of the FIS Ski Jumping World Cup since it´s start in 1979-1980.

Here you can find some statistics of the tournament.

Most overall wins

Janne Ahonen (FIN)5
Jens Weissflog (GER)4
Bjorn Wirkola (NOR)3
Helmut Recknagel (DDR)3
Matti Nykänen (FIN)2
Gregor Schierenzauer (AUT)2
Andreas Goldberger (AUT)2
Jochen Danneberg (DDR)2
Veikko Kankkonen (FIN)2
Hubert Neuper (AUT)2
Ernst Vettori (AUT)2
Kamil Stoch (POL)2

Most overall wins by country

3.East Germany11-9-1030
7.Czechoslovakia / Chech Republic2-3-510
10.Soviet Union1-1-46

Four Hill Tournameny Winners of all time

1952-53Erling KrokenAsgeir DølpladsJosef BradlHalvor NæsJosef Bradl
1953-54Olaf BjørnstadOlaf BjørnstadOlaf BjørnstadJosef BradlOlaf Bjørnstad
1954-55Aulis KallakorpiAulis KallakorpiTorbjørn RusteTorbjørn RusteHemmo Silvennoinen
1955–56Eino Kirjonen/Aulis KallakorpiHemmo SilvennoinenKoba ZakadzeJuri SkofzovNikolai Kamenski
1956–57Pentti UotinenNikolai KamenskiNikolai ŠamovEino KirjonenPentti Uotinen
1957–58Nikolai KamenskiWilli EggerHelmut RecknagelHelmut RecknagelHelmut Recknagel
1958–59Helmut RecknagelHelmut RecknagelHelmut RecknagelWalter HabersatterHelmut Recknagel
1959–60Max BolkartMax BolkartMax BolkartAlbin BlankMax Bolkart
1960–61Juhani KärkinenKoba ZakadzeKalevi KärkinenHelmut RecknagelHelmut Recknagel
1961–62Eino KirjonenGeorg ThomaWilli EggerWilli EggerEino Kirjonen
1962–63Toralf EnganToralf EnganToralf EnganTorbjørn YggesethToralf Engan
1963–64Torbjørn YggesethVeikko KankkonenVeikko KankkonenBaldur PreimlVeikko Kankkonen
1964–65Torgeir BrandtzægErkki PukkaTorgeir BrandtzægBjørn WirkolaTorgeir Brandtzæg
1965–66Veikko KankkonenPaavo LukkariniemiDieter NeuendorfVeikko KankkonenVeikko Kankkonen
1966–67Dieter NeuendorfBjørn WirkolaBjørn WirkolaBjørn WirkolaBjørn Wirkola
1967–68Dieter NeuendorfBjørn WirkolaGari NapalkovJiří RaškaBjørn Wirkola
1968–69Bjørn WirkolaBjørn WirkolaBjørn WirkolaJiří RaškaBjørn Wirkola
1969–70Gari NapalkovJiří RaškaBjørn WirkolaJiří RaškaHorst Queck
1970–71Ingolf MorkIngolf MorkZbynek HubacIngolf MorkJiří Raška
1971–72Yukio KasayaYukio KasayaYukio KasayaBjørn WirkolaIngolf Mork
1972–73Rainer SchmidtRainer SchmidtSergei BotshkovRudolf HöhnlRainer Schmidt
1973–74Hans-Georg AschenbachWalter SteinerHans-Georg AschenbachBernd EcksteinHans-Georg Aschenbach
1974–75Willi PürstlKarl SchnablKarl SchnablKarl SchnablWilli Pürstl
1975–76Toni InnauerToni InnauerJochen DannebergToni InnauerJochen Danneberg
1976–77Toni InnauerJochen DannebergHenri GlassWalter SteinerJochen Danneberg
1977–78Matthias BuseJochen DannebergPer BergerudKari YlianttilaKari Ylianttila
1978–79Juri IvanovJosef SamekPentti KokkonenPentti KokkonenPentti Kokkonen
1979–80Jochen DannebergHubert NeuperHubert NeuperMartin WeberHubert Neuper
1980–81Hubert NeuperHorst BulauJari PuikkonenArmin KoglerHubert Neuper
1981–82Matti NykänenRoger RuudPer Bergerud/Manfred DeckertHubert NeuperManfred Deckert
1982–83Horst BulauArmin KoglerMatti NykänenJens WeißflogMatti Nykänen
1983–84Klaus OstwaldJens WeißflogJens WeißflogJens WeißflogJens Weißflog
1984–85Ernst VettoriJens WeißflogMatti NykänenHroar StjernenJens Weißflog
1985–86Pekka SuorsaPavel PlocJari PuikkonenErnst VettoriErnst Vettori
1986–87Vegard OpaasAndreas BauerPrimoz UlagaTuomo YlipulliErnst Vettori
1987–88Pavel PlocMatti NykänenMatti NykänenMatti NykänenMatti Nykänen
1988–89Dieter ThomaMatti NykänenJan BoklövMike HollandRisto Laakkonen
1989–90Dieter ThomaJens WeißflogAri-Pekka NikkolaFrantisek JezDieter Thoma
1990–91Jens WeißflogJens Weißflog/Andreas FelderAri-Pekka NikkolaAndreas FelderJens Weißflog
1991–92Toni NieminenAndreas FelderToni NieminenToni NieminenToni Nieminen
1992–93Christof DuffnerNoriaki KasaiAndreas GoldbergerAndreas GoldbergerAndreas Goldberger
1993–94Jens WeißflogEspen BredesenAndreas GoldbergerEspen BredesenEspen Bredesen
1994–95Reinhard SchwarzenbergerJanne AhonenKazuyoshi FunakiAndreas GoldbergerAndreas Goldberger
1995–96Mika LaitinenReinhard SchwarzenbergerAndreas GoldbergerJens WeißflogJens Weißflog
1996–97Dieter ThomaPrimoz PeterkaKazuyoshi FunakiDieter ThomaPrimoz Peterka
1997–98Kazuyoshi FunakiKazuyoshi FunakiKazuyoshi FunakiSven HannawaldKazuyoshi Funaki
1998–99Martin SchmittMartin SchmittNoriaki KasaiAndreas WidhölzlJanne Ahonen
1999–00Martin SchmittAndreas WidhölzlAndreas WidhölzlAndreas WidhölzlAndreas Widhölzl
2000–01Martin SchmittNoriaki KasaiAdam MałyszAdam MałyszAdam Małysz
2001–02Sven HannawaldSven HannawaldSven HannawaldSven HannawaldSven Hannawald
2002–03Sven HannawaldPrimoz PeterkaJanne AhonenBjørn Einar RomørenJanne Ahonen
2003–04Sigurd PettersenSigurd PettersenPeter ZontaSigurd PettersenSigurd Pettersen
2004–05Janne AhonenJanne AhonenJanne AhonenMartin HöllwarthJanne Ahonen
2005–06Janne AhonenJakub JandaLars BystølJanne AhonenJanne Ahonen/Jakub Janda
2006–07Gregor SchlierenzauerAndreas KüttelAnders JacobsenGregor SchlierenzauerAnders Jacobsen
2007–08Thomas MorgensternGregor SchlierenzauerJanne AhonenJanne AhonenJanne Ahonen
2008–09Simon AmmannWolfgang LoitzlWolfgang LoitzlWolfgang LoitzlWolfgang Loitzl
2009–10Andreas KoflerGregor SchlierenzauerGregor SchlierenzauerThomas MorgensternAndreas Kofler
2010–11Thomas MorgensternSimon AmmannThomas MorgensternTom HildeThomas Morgenstern
2011–12Gregor SchlierenzauerGregor SchlierenzauerAndreas KoflerThomas MorgensternGregor Schlierenzauer
2012–13Anders JacobsenAnders JacobsenGregor SchlierenzauerGregor SchlierenzauerGregor Schlierenzauer
2013–14Simon AmmannThomas DiethartAnssi KoivurantaThomas DiethartThomas Diethart
2014–15Stefan KraftAnders JacobsenRichard FreitagMichael HayböckStefan Kraft
2015–16Severin FreundPeter PrevcPeter PrevcPeter PrevcPeter Prevc
2016–17Stefan KraftDaniel-André TandeDaniel-André TandeKamil StochKamil Stoch
2017–18Kamil StochKamil StochKamil StochKamil StochKamil Stoch
2018–19Ryōyū KobayashiRyōyū KobayashiRyōyū KobayashiRyōyū KobayashiRyōyū Kobayashi
2019-20Ryōyū KobayashiMarius LindvikMarius LindvikDawid KubackiDawid Kubacki

Wins in the same tournament

Athletes who have won all four competitions in the same tournament

  • Sven Hannawald 2001–2002
  • Kamil Stoch 2017–2018
  • Ryoyu Kobayashi 2018–2019

Athletes who have won the overall tournament without winning a single competition in that tournament

  • Hemmo Silvennoinen 1954–1955
  • Nikolai Kamenski 1955–1956
  • Horst Queck 1969–1970
  • Jiří Raška 1970–1971
  • Ingolf Mork 1971–1972
  • Ernst Vettori 1986–1987
  • Risto Laakkonen 1988–1989
  • Janne Ahonen 1998–1999

Athletes who have won three competitions in the same tournament but not the overall tournament

  • Ingolf Mork 1970–1971
  • Yukio Kasaya 1971–1972
  • Karl Schnabl 1974–1975
  • Toni Innauer 1975–1976

Statistics source: Wikipedia and FIS